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Zoëga's A Concise Dictionary of Old Icelandic


, prep., A. with dat. I. of place; (1) on, upon, in ; glfi, on the floor; hendi, on the hand (of a ring) ; sj ok landi, on sea and land; bkum enskum, in English books; hinni, in heaven ; jru, on earth ; hafa lykil sr,... on one's person; vera ingi, to be present at a meeting ; vera skgi, to be out in a forest (of a hunter, robber, deer) ; r eyjar liggja Breiafiri,... in Broad firth (2) in connexion with proper names of countries, esp those ending in '-land', in; Englandi, rlandi, Skotlandi, Bretlandi, Groenlandi, Islandi, &c., . Mri, gum, Fjlum; Mrum (in Iceland); Finnmrk, Fjni (a Danish island), but Danmrk, Svipj ; also before names of Icel. farms denoting open spaces ; risstum, Mruvllum, Fitjum. II. of time; (1) during, in the course of; ntt, by night; degi, by day; v ri, vri, sumri, in that year, spring, summer; rem sumrum, in the course of three summers; var hann fm dgum heill, within few days; dgum e-s, in the days of, in his reign or time; (2) used of a, fixed recurrent period or season ; vrum, sumrum, haustum, vetrum, every spring, summer, &c. ; kveldum, in the evening; risvar ri, manui, three times a year, a month. III. fig. and in various relations ; (1) denoting personal relation, in, to, towards; bta e-t e-m, to make amends to one (personally); sj e-m, to read one or in one's face ; hafa elsku (hatr) e-m, to bear love (hatred) to one; rjfa stt e-m, to break a truce on one; (2) with a reflexive pron., denoting personal appearance, temper, look ; vera ungr, lttr sr, to be heavy or light (either bodily or mentally) ktr ok lttr sr, of a gay and light disposition; at brag hafi hann sr, he looked as if; sna fleika sr, to show displeasure; (3) as periphrasis of the possessive pron. or a genitive ; hann rtti sr fingrna, he stretched his fingers; ftrinn honum, his foot; vrunum honum, in his lips ; stafn, skutr, rar, segl skipi, the stem, stern, oars, sail of a ship; bl tr, leaves of a tree; egg sveri = sversegg; (4) denoting instrumentality, by, by means of; afla fjr hlmgngum, to make money by duelling; fella e-n bragi,... by a trick (in wrestling); komast undan fltta, to escape by flight; (5) with numerals ;  rija tigi manna, between twenty and thirty; nunda tigi, between eighty and ninety years of age; ru hundrai skipa, with above a hundred sail; (6) in many adverbial phrases lfi, alive; brautu, away; floti, afloat; milli, between; laun, secretly; mti, against; enda, at an end; flugi, a-flying, in the air; gangi, walking; skjlfi, a-shivering; hleri, a-listening; veium, a-hunting; beit, a-grazing; (7) used absol. in reference to the air or the weather; oka var mikil, a thick fog was on; allhvast noran, very strong breeze from the north; gri regn, rain came on. B. with acc. I. of place; (1) indicating direction with or without motion, towards, to, on, upon ; ganga land, to go ashore; ganga skg, into the wood; stga skip, to go on board; , bi bor, on both sides (of the ship) ; hli, sidewise; hggva tvr hendr, to hew or strike right and left ; stefna , ftinn, to aim at the foot ; gekk vrit vestr, the wind veered to the west; hrit tk ofan belti, reached down to the belt ; reka austr haf, to drift eastwards on the sea ; (2) in some cases the acc. is used instead of the dat., esp. with verbs denoting to hear or to see; eir s boa mikinn inn fjrinn, they saw great breakers away in the firth ; with phrases denoting to be placed, seated, to sit, the seat is freq. in

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