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[64] Notes and Additional Remarks

1) Cf. new edition I, p. 159.
2) G. Landtman, Folktro och Trolldom I, Övernaturliga väsen (Finlands svenska Folkdiktning VII, i, Helsingfors 1919) P. 8.
3) Cf. Kaarle Krohn, Skandinavisk Mytologi p. 87-88, who however seems to me to be too sceptical on this subject. The same observation has been made with regard to "primitive" man who also answers according to the wish of his interlocutor, he very shrewdly guesses cf. H. Basedow, The Australian Aboriginal p. 228.
4) E. Elgqvist, Folkminnen och Folktankar XVI (1929) p. 91.
5) In Gärds herad the sheaf was sacrificed to Noen and his dogs cf. A. Helgesson, Folkminnen och Folktankar IV (1917) p. 145.
6) See about these traditions the excellent study of Hans Ellekilde, Odinsjægeren paa Møn, in the Nordiskt Folkeminne p. 85-1 16 ; he mentions all known forms of the name, which are besides Jøden and Jætten (the Jew and the Giant) such as Gjøjen, Joing, which may be the same word as Goden (Góinn). The name Opsal does not mean the Swedish town Upsala, but is rather a circumlocution for Møns Klint (the elevated hall).
7) See Axel Olrik, Danske Studier 1904 p. 35-38. - According to a communication from Bornholm the [65] last sheaf was left on the field for "Landkongens hest", cf. Skattegraveren III, p. 25
8) With regard to its possibly being known in Eastgötland too cf. M. Pn. Nilsson, Folkminnen och Folktankar VIII (1921) p. 69. - See also H. Celander, Rig 1920 p. 171.
9) J. Th. Storaker, Elementerne in den Norske Folketro (Norsk Folkeminnelag X) p. 135 ff.
10) Cf. Landtman o. c. II, Växtlighetsriter (Helsingfors 1925) p. 111
11) Cf. Pfannenschmid, Germanische Erntefeste p. 409.
12) Cf. U. Jahn, Die deutschen Opferbräuche p. 163.
13) U. Jahn o. c. p. 173. Cf. also Mannhardt, Die Korndämonen (Berlin 1868) p. VII.
14) For another and sounder interpretation see the excellent monography of Nils Lid, Joleband og vegetationsguddom (Skrifter utgitt av Det Norske Videnskaps-Akademi i Oslo II, Hist.-Filos. Klasse 1928 Nr. 4) p. 270 f.
15) Jahn. o. c. p. 165.
16) Wald- and Feldkulte (Berlin 1875-1877).
17) Spirits of the Corn and the Wild (The Golden Bough V).
18) Der Ackerbau im Volksaberglauben der Finnen and Esten mit entsprechenden Gebräuchen der Germanen verglichen (FF Communications Nrs. 30, 31, 32, 55 and 62).
19) See the title of the book in note 14.
201) Cf. H. Ellekilde, Ellekongen i Stevns, Danske Studier 1929 p. 10-39. His conclusion that this king of the elves really should be the old stormgod Othin, is not borne out by the facts ; the elves of the heathen period certainly were spirits of the dead (cf. Oláfr Geirstaða-álfr), especially connected with the [66] prosperity of the soil (álfablót). So a sacrifice to them in harvest time does not necessarily imply and relation with Othin.
21) Cf. G. Landtman, Hustomtens förvantskap och härstamning in Folkloristiska och etnografiska Studier III, p. 12.
22) Cf. Jahn o. c. p. 182 ff and Frazer, The Spirits of the Corn and the Wild I, p. 131 ff.
23) This Danish information, as well as most of the references to Danish customs in this paper are taken from the abundant material in the Danish Folkeminde Samling, which Mr. H. Ellekilde has been so kind as to place at my disposal.
24) Johannes Skar, Gamalt or Sætesdal I (first edition.), p. 8 says, that people formerly always left something in the barn, the porridge-bowl, the bread-tray, the purse etc. "de var a fatigt Hus, sopar an ut alt Bosi". And on p. 7o he tells about a man, who was always in the habit of cutting the corn very carelessly "so hadde han langt Hoy til kvart Aar". See moreover for the idea of the first and the last in popular belief Von Sydow in Folkminnen och Folktankar XIII (1926) P- 53 f and esp. p. 68.
25) See Axel Olrik, Danske Studier 1904, p. 38
26) See Elgqvist, Folkminnen och Folktankar XVI (1929) p. 94.
27) Cf. Nikander, Fruktbarhetsriter hos svenskarna i Finland (Folkloristiska och etnografiska Studier I) p. 259 and J. Th. Storaker, Naturrigerne i den norske folketro (Norsk Folkeminnelag XVIII) p. 70-71. For more examples see Frazer, The Golden Bough (abridged edition) p. 232-233.
28) Cf. Rantasalo o. c. 111, p. 79. Also the superstitions about the lykkebiten of a cake in Norway or the maktbiten in Sweden (Nils Lid 0. C. P. 215).
29) Cf. U. Holmberg, Die Religion der Tscheremissen, FFComm Nr. 61 p. 88.
30) Cf. U. Holmberg, Die Wassergottheiten der finnischugrischen Völker (Mémoires de la Société FinnoOugrienne XXXIII Helsingfors 1913, p. 6.
31) Cf. U. Holmberg, Doppelfrucht im Aberglauben (Suomalais-ugrilaisen Seuran toimituksia LII, p. 48-66. - Perhaps we may compare the curious custom in Kragelund, Viborg amt, Jutland of binding the last sheaf so as to divide the top into two parts and to call it "tvillingneget".
32) The Golden Bough (Abridged edition) p. 453.
33) The last sheaf is called fox in the Danish Islands of Sjælland and Fyn; in the latter it has too the name of sow ; but it is called hare in Lolland, Falster and the Juttish peninsula.
34) Cf. U. Holmberg, Finno-Ugric Mythology p. 247.
35) Cf. J. Schrijnen, Nederlandsche Volkskunde 1, p. 280.
36) The idea of the "blood of the hare" is also found in Norwegian popular customs, cf. Nils Lid o. c. p. 22.
37) Cf. f. i. Kr. Bugge in Festskrift Feilberg p. 170 who gives an example from the Trondhjem district.
38) There are more instances of a spirit who is at first in a hostile mood and refuses to submit to man, but after being, subdued gives all desired help and information. So is the Greek Proteus and the merman of popular belief. But it seems to me that in the case of the spirit of vegetation the explanation of its double attitude towards man is more complicated.
39) Cf. U. Holmberg, Virolaiset viljaneitsyt (Suomalais-Ugrilaisen Seuran Toimituksia XXXV, 3) p. 10.
40) Cf. Frazer, o. c. p. 399 ff.
41) Cf. Frazer, o. c. p. 402 ff.
42) Cf. M. Pn. Nilsson, Aarets folkelige Fester (Religions-historiske Smaaskrifter, Anden Række VI) p. 9.
43) I take this very illustrative example from the interesting paper of G. Landtman about "Hustomtens förvantskap and härstamning" in Folkloristiska och Etnografiska Studier III (Helsingfors 1922).
44) The reader will observe that the name of "the Old One" serves also to denote the corn-spirit in its human form (vide supra); this is not of course a mere coincidence.
45) Cf. Rantasalo o. c. V, p. 198.
46) Cf. Uno Holmberg, Vänster Hand och motsols in Rig 1925, p. 23 ff.
47) Cf. M. Pn. Nilsson, Folkminnen och Folktankar VIII (1921) p. 59.
48) Cf. E. Elgqvist, Folkminnen och Folktankar XVI (1929) p. 91.
49) Hilding Celander, Nordisk Jul 1, p. 147.
50) o. c. p. 193 ff. 51) o. c. p. 149.52) o. c. p. 86.
51) o. c. p. 149.
52) o. c. p. 86.
53) Cf. Skånska Folkminnen, Årsbok 1929, p. 151.
54) Cf. Nils Lid o. c. p. 138.
55) Wegelius and Wikman, Folkloristiska och Etnografiska Studier I (Helsingfors 1916) p. 161.
56) The Karelians kill on St. Olav's day a lamb without a knife; the bones may not be broken. A part of the flesh is put in a corner of the room for the housespirits, another part on the field, a third part under the birch-trees which they intend to use as May-poles (H. Celander, Folkminnen och Folktankar XII, 1925, 4, p. 5).
57) Cf. M. Pn. Nilsson, Aarets folkelige fester p. 50 f.
58) Cf. P. Sébillot, Le Folklore de France 1, p. 166 ff and J. P. Jacobsen, Harlekin og den vilde Jæger in Dania IX (1902) p. I ff.
59) This is again an instance of the vague character of popular ideas as mentioned above.
60) The name Óðr, the relation of which to Óðinn will be discussed presently, gives strong support to this opinion.
61) Cf. Dania 11, p. 121.
62) Cf. Grundtvig, Danmarks gamle Folkeviser III, p. 909 b: in some parts of Denmark the migratory birds are called dogs of heaven (himmelhunde). In Sweden people say when they are passing by: they are the dogs og Othin (Hyltén-Cavallius I, p. 1621. Likewise in some parts of Holland the Wild Hunt, the "Berndekesjacht" is supposed to pass by when the wild geese are heard in the sky, cf. Driemaandelÿksche Bladen II (1903) p. 5 and III (1904) p. 3.
63) Cf. the words of Geiler von Kaisersberg (quoted by L. Weniger, Feralis Exercitus in the Archiv für Religionswissenschaft IX, 19o6, p. 22o): Also redt der gemeine Man von dem Wütischen Heer dass die, die vor den Zeiten sterben, ee denn dass inen Got hat uffgesetzet, als die, die in die Reis laufen and erstochen werden, oder gehenkt and ertrenkt werden, die müssen also lang nach irem todt laufen, bis das zil kumpt, das inen Got gesetzet hat and darn so würkt Got mit inen, was sein götlicher Wil ist.
64) Cf. ed. Sievers 133, 16.
65) Cf. Graff, Althochdeutscher Sprachschatz I, p. 767.
66) This agrees also with the most probable etymology of the Germanic word-group, see p. 53
67) Gislason, Efterladte Skrifter I, p. 187 : de sjæleevner der udmærke mennesket fremfor dyret.
68) Cf. the Old-Norse gyzki "insanity'', derived from Germ. adj. "gudisk- "possessed by a god".
69) F. Jónsson, Skjaldedigtning I, p. 284.
70) See idem p. 449.
71) See Jónsson's edition p. 1oo.
72) See Rantasalo o. c. II, p. 47.
73) See F. Kluge, Nominale Stammbildungslehre der, altgermanischen Dialekte § 2o and C. J. S. Marstrander, Norsk Tidsskrift for Sprogvidenskap I (1928) p. 158 ff.
74) See Kluge o. c. § 29.
75) For the different forms in -ann, -inn see R. C. Boer, Oudnoorsch Handboek § 138 note 2.
76) See o. c. p. 159. Riese, however, in his book Das rheinische Germanien in den antiken Inschriften, Nr. 3357, supposes the name to have been Leudicianus.
77) Schmidt's Zeitschrift f. Geschichte VIII, p. 264 note.
78) Mogk, Grundriss (2) III, p. 358 ff; Kauffmann, PBB XVIII, p. 140 ff; Helm, Altgermanische Religionsgeschichte I, p. 381.
79) Hedenske Kultminder i norske Stedsnavne I (Oslo 1915) and Ættegard og Helligdom, Norske Stedsnavn sosialt og religionshistorisk belyst (Oslo 1926).
8o) This and other examples adduced below show that K. Helm o. c. I, p. 264 wrongly denies the possibility of the derivation of a personal name from another one by the suffix -no.
81) Cf. M. Olsen, Stedsnavn og Gudenavn i Land (Avh. Norske Vid. Akad. Oslo, II 1929, Nr. 3) p. 77. The same root occurs in the name of the Indian god Vrtra, who, according to K. F. Johansson, Über die altindische Göttin Dhisana and Verwandtes in the Skrifter utgifna of Kungl. Hum. Vet. Samf i Uppsala XX, I, p. 137, may be compared with the Scandinavian Ullr in many respects. - Cf. also Johan Palmér in Acta Philologica Scandinavica V, p. 290-291.
82) Then we accept the etymology which combines this word with Gr. anèr Skr. nara, Old-Irish nert and [71] we reject the hypothesis of F. R. Schröder, Germanentum and Hellenismus p. 51, who compares the Skr, root nrt "to dance". Sten Konow, who in the same year as Schröder proposed this etymology (Festskrift Kjær p. 53-60) insists upon *Nerþu- being an -u-stem, not a -tu-stem, but I do not see the reason of this opinion. The analogy of Óðr and Ullr points at any rate in an other direction.
83) This is the explanation of Axel Kock in ZfdPhil. XXVIII, p. 289 ff.
84) The problem of the different sex may also be solved in another way, as indicated by Edv. Lehmann in Maal og Minne 1919 p. I ff: Nerthus could have been a hermaphroditical divinity, of which Tacitus' Nerthus forms the female and the Old-Norse Njord the male counterpart. Still I should be inclined to think even when accepting this hypothesis, that the form of the name more particularly denotes the god of fertility, not the goddess.
85) In this connection the Old Norse divinities Fjörgyn and Fjörgynn deserve to be mentioned; I may refer the reader to my paper in the Dutch Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsche Taal- en Letterkunde L (1931) p. 1-25
86) Cf. L. Malten, Das Pferd im Totenglauben, Jahrbuch des Kais. d. Arch. Instituts XXIX (1914).
87) At any rate I consider this to be a much more satisfactory explanation than that which is commonly found in the handbooks, that the relation between Óðr and Frigg is in some way connected with the popular belief of the Wild Huntsman who pursues a nymph of the forest (Cf. W. Golther, Handbuch der germanischen Mythologie p. 288).
88) For a discussion of the meaning of the classical god Mercurius-Hermes see the following recent papers: W. B. Kristensen, De goddelijke bedrieger (Mede-[72] deelingen der Kon. Acad van Wetenschappen, Afd. Letterk. 66 B, Nr. 3) and J. P. B. de Josselin de Jong, De oorsprong van den goddelijken bedrieger (ibidem 68 B, Nr. I).
89) See The Cult of Othin p. 67.

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